Journal of Pacific Archaeology https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal <p>The <em>Journal of Pacific Archaeology</em> is an international peer-reviewed journal that publishes research on the archaeology of the islands and continental margins of the Pacific Ocean, both northern and southern hemispheres. There are two issues per year, appearing online in January and July with print editions appearing soon thereafter.</p> en-US e.cochrane@auckland.ac.nz (Ethan Cochrane) tim.thomas@otago.ac.nz (Tim Thomas) Tue, 03 Sep 2019 16:47:06 -0700 OJS 3.1.0.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Discovery of Talasea obsidian in a post-Lapita deposit in Arnavon Islands, Solomon Islands https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/284 <p>This paper reports on the discovery and geochemical characterisation of an obsidian artefact from a post-Lapita site on the Arnavon Islands situated between Choiseul and Santa Isabel in Solomon Islands. The flake is analysed using pXRF and sourced to the Talasea region of West New Britain in the Bismarck Archipelago. Obsidian is common in the Lapita sites of the Reef-Santa Cruz Islands of the eastern Solomons and Buka at the northern end of the archipelago, but only seven pieces have been recovered in the main island chain. The finding improves our understanding of the movement of obsidian and post-Lapita exchange in Solomon Islands.</p> Charles James Tekarawa Radclyffe, Glenn Summerhayes, Richard Walter ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/284 Mon, 30 Sep 2019 15:02:56 -0700 Late Pre-Contact Construction and Use of an ‘Archaic’ Shrine at the Pālehua Complex (Honouliuli District, O‘ahu Island, Hawai‘i) https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/280 <p>The Pālehua enclosure in upland Honouliuli (O‘ahu Island, Hawai‘i) is a celestially-significant ritual structure believed to be associated with the annual Makahiki harvest period. Near the enclosure is an alignment of six basalt uprights typical of simple Central East Polynesian marae (temples), and early ‘shrine’ sites found in other geographically isolated regions of the Hawaiian archipelago. Here, we report on the first excavation of this shrine along with continued excavations at the Pālehua enclosure. A Bayesian chronological model combining 14 new AMS radiocarbon dates from the shrine and the enclosure with six dates from previous excavations indicates that both the Pālehua shrine and the adjacent enclosure were constructed in the mid-17<sup>th</sup> century and continued to be used until at least the early 19<sup>th</sup> century. Our model indicates that the shrine site was constructed significantly later than similar structures elsewhere in the archipelago. This suggests that simple marae-like shrines persisted alongside the development of monumental architecture used for ceremonial purposes, rather than being replaced later in time by more elaborate forms. These results have implications not only for site activity at Pālehua, but also for chronologies of ceremonial architecture and religious practices across the Hawaiian archipelago.</p> Jillian A. Swift, Patrick V. Kirch, Alexander Baer, Jennifer Huebert, Timothy M. Gill ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/280 Wed, 21 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Sago oven pottery production in the Raja Ampat Islands of the far western Pacific https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/281 <p>&nbsp;This paper is the first ethnographic description of ceramic sago oven production in the Raja Ampat Islands of West Papua. These rectilinear ovens are widespread throughout eastern Indonesia, used to bake sago flour into small ‘cakes,’ which can be stored during times of food shortage or used in exchange. Little is known about the emergence of this technology in the past and so this modern baseline serves as an important link to understand production sequences in the archaeological record. This record will be central to understanding sago processing in the deeper past, a key part of a wider system of forest exploitation in the far western Pacific Islands.</p> Dylan Gaffney, Daud Tanudirjo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/281 Thu, 15 Aug 2019 16:36:48 -0700 The long-term history of Teti'aroa (Society Islands, French Polynesia): New archaeological and ethnohistorical investigations https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/282 <p>Teti'aroa is the only atoll in the Windward group of the Society Islands, French Polynesia. It has been described in the ethnohistorical record as a secondary place of residence for the Tahitian royal family of Pare in the 18<sup>th</sup> Century. However, Teti'aroa’s history beyond this remains relatively unknown as the atoll is archaeologically understudied. Here we report the preliminary results of a project, started in 2015, which aims at documenting the long-term occupation of Teti'aroa. We present the survey and mapping of the archaeological remains and discuss the monumental architecture, the relationships with neighbouring and distant communities, and investigations of the historical copra plantation.</p> Guillaume Molle, Aymeric Hermann, Louis Lagarde, Benoit Stoll ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/282 Mon, 29 Jul 2019 17:10:20 -0700 Archeology from a Submersible: Rare Physical Evidence of Ancient Deepwater Bottom Fishing in Hawai‘i https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/276 <p>Historical accounts of off-shore fishing and methodology are documented in Hawaiian literature yet few accounts of ancient fishing grounds exist since locations were undisclosed and lost over time. A submersible dive (216 m) now provides evidence of a historical site and verification of traditional fishing techniques. A recovered artifact and photo documentation of stones scattered throughout the pinnacle distinctly fit historical descriptions of plummet and sinker stones used in bottom fishing. This paper documents the deepest substantiated pre-contact fishing site to date and substantiates reports of the ability of early Hawaiian fishermen to return to fishing sites well offshore.</p> Paul L Jokiel, Christopher Kelley, Ku'ulei S Rodgers ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/276 Mon, 27 May 2019 00:00:00 -0700 New excavations at Fa’ahia (Huahine, Society Islands) and chronologies of central East Polynesian colonization https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/279 <p>The six-hectare site of Vaito'otia-Fa'ahia on Huahine Island in the Leeward Societies is renowned for its wealth of material culture typifying early East Polynesian settlement, including items of wood and fibre preserved by waterlogging, through the research of Yosihiko Sinoto and colleagues in particular. However, the stratigraphy for much of the excavated area is sketchy and no precise chronology of settlement is available. Renewed excavations in the Fa'hia site area in 2007, although relatively limited in scope produced more stratigraphic detail, additional faunal remains and artefacts, including a patu, and 12 new radiocarbon dates on short lifespan material from the lowest cultural layer which indicate initial human occupation about AD 1050-1160. In the light of this result, recent arguments for earlier initial colonisation of Central East Polynesia are reviewed. Chronological evidence adduced in these relies primarily upon radiocarbon samples with potentially substantial inbuilt age, and it is concluded that there is no compelling case for colonization of the region prior to the early eleventh century AD. &nbsp;</p> Atholl John Anderson, Eric Conte, Ian Smith, Katherine Szabo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/279 Sun, 12 May 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Dendroarchaeology in New Zealand: extending the range of archaeologically useful species beyond kauri (Agathis australis) https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/269 <p>Accurately establishing calendar dates for Māori wooden objects would place them in a secure temporal context and enable aspects of manufacturing and use to be explored within and between sites, and across time. Dendrochronology has the potential to produce accurate and precise calendar dates for wooden artefacts but in New Zealand application of this technique to Māori cultural material is limited as there is almost no overlap between wood species found in archaeological contexts and tree-species with proven suitability for tree-ring dating. Here we identify five archaeologically-useful species – kahikatea (<em>Dacrycarpus dacrydioides</em>), matai (<em>Prumnopitys taxifolia</em>), miro (<em>Prumnopitys ferruginea</em>), rimu (<em>Dacrydium cupressinum</em>) and totara (<em>Podocarpus totara</em>) – and assess their potential for dendrochronology. Of these, matai, miro and totara are identified as species that should be the subject of further comprehensive dendrochronological investigation.</p> Gretel Boswijk, Dilys Johns, Alan Hogg ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/269 Wed, 30 Jan 2019 00:00:00 -0800 Mangahawea Bay Revisited: a reconsideration of the stratigraphy and chronology of site Q05/682 https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/270 <p>The Mangahawea Bay Site (Q05/682) on Moturua Island in the Bay of Islands was excavated in 1981. A single radiocarbon date from the lower levels returned an age of 1162-1439 AD (95.4% confidence) but the results of the excavation have never been fully reported. Despite some uncertainty about the age and nature of the stratigraphy, the site has long been regarded in the New Zealand archaeological community as a significant example of early occupation in the north. New excavations at Mangahawea Bay in 2017 have clarified the nature of the stratigraphy and provided a more reliable set of radiocarbon determinations. This recent work demonstrates that the site was first occupied for a short period in the early to mid-fourteenth century AD. Following abandonment of the first settlement there is evidence for ongoing, intermittent, activities in the Bay until historic times, but no further occupation at the site itself. These new results provide a foundation for future analysis of the substantial body of excavation material from the 1981 and 2017 excavations.</p> James Robinson, Andrew Blanchard, Matutaera Te Nana Clendon, Justin Maxwell, Nicholas Sutton, Richard Walter ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/270 Thu, 06 Dec 2018 00:00:00 -0800 Diversity in early New Guinea pottery traditions https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/268 <p>The initial appearance of pottery on mainland New Guinea has been an elusive and sometimes controversial topic. A range of factors contribute to this conundrum including landscape transformation and disturbance where relevant archaeology may be undetectable, or misinterpreted, and a lack of sound evidence from various sites that could facilitate comparative analysis. Moreover, the preeminence of the Lapita pottery sequence and its clear dispersal model has set expectations and perceptions concerning the oldest known pottery on New Guinea, which sometimes has resulted in scanty finds being interpreted on <em>a priori</em>conceptual grounds rather than according to substantive or direct local evidence. Presented here is a catalogue of pottery recovered in 2004-05 from Lachitu, Taora, Watinglo and Paleflatu. These co-located north coast Papua New Guinea (PNG) sites provide material where the issues of chronostratigraphic integrity are directly confronted. Pottery from Lachitu and Taora was previously claimed as among the earliest ceramics on mainland PNG. However, the dating of results presented in this study suggests a more recent context for the introduction and manufacture of pottery, with a variety of diagnostic attributes pointing to a complex involvement of diverse peoples.</p> Phillip Beaumont, Sue O'Connor, Mathieu Leclerc, Ken Aplin ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/268 Sat, 29 Sep 2018 00:00:00 -0700 Lesley Montague Groube , 1937–2018: A Biographical Sketch https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/267 Foss Leach, Helen Leach ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/267 Mon, 13 Aug 2018 00:00:00 -0700 The Oxford Handbook of Prehistoric Oceania - Cochrane & Hunt https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/271 Mark D McCoy ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/271 Sun, 12 Aug 2018 19:56:02 -0700 Geochemical and radiometric analyses of archaeological remains from Easter Island’s moai (statue) quarry reveal prehistoric timing, provenance, and use of fine–grain basaltic resources https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/230 <p>Pacific and Rapa Nui (Easter Island) volcanologists and geologists have set the stage for the island’s archaeologists working in lithic sourcing studies by providing practical data regarding the island geodynamic activity, geomorphological formation and dating, and the macroscopic, microscopic, and elemental proprieties of Easter Island stone. Drawing upon this information, and the research collaboration between two active archaeological projects on Rapa Nui – the Easter Island Statue Project and the Rapa Nui Geochemical Project –  this article presents: 1) a synthesis of a 5–meter field excavation of <em>moai </em>RR–001–156 in Rano Raraku, the <em>moai </em>statue quarry; 2) a 14C assessment which dates human presence around <em>moai </em>RR–001–156; 3) 31 basalt quarry and source site descriptions; and 4) laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry and principal component analyses of 21 archaeological and 117 geological samples. Our results trace the prehistoric transfer of basaltic resources from the Ava o’Kiri and Pu Tokitoki complex to the <em>moai </em>quarry at Rano Raraku during the AD 1400’s. This conclusion helps us to better understand sociopolitical and economic interaction during Rapa Nui prehistory.  </p> Dale Fredrick Simpson Jr., Jo Anne Van Tilburg, Laure Dussubieux ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/230 Sun, 12 Aug 2018 19:24:01 -0700 On the Identification of Opportunistic Hammer-Dressing Tools from the Pacific https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/240 <p>Roger Duff’s (1977) typology of Polynesian adze heads has become a referential guide for archaeological research in the Pacific, as demonstrated by contemporary efforts to quantitatively scrutinize the validity of Duff’s morphological types (Shipton et al. 2016).&nbsp; Although discussions of morphologically distinct adze head types occasionally point out technological idiosyncrasies, an exclusively technological approach to adze head production is virtually non-existent in the New Zealand literature. This paper uses a replicative approach to hammer-dressing tools, a common manufacturing method in Pacific adze technology, to create an analogue for a previously misidentified tool type recovered from the early New Zealand site of Shag River Mouth.</p> Matt Swieton ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/240 Sun, 12 Aug 2018 19:22:41 -0700 Life, Death and Care on the Otago Goldfields: A Preliminary Glimpse. https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/244 In 2017 two unmarked graves were disturbed by tree removal in the Cromwell Cemetery in Central Otago, New Zealand. These were the burials of two men who probably died in the 1890s, and examination of their remains indicated that both were manual workers with evidence of strong musculature and also numerous injuries; evidence of the harsh working life led by many in the nineteenth century Otago goldfields. This paper considers these two individuals, the evidence for their lived experiences, and the implications of their injuries within a 'bioarchaeology of care' model. It also provides a basic outline of the appropriate handling of such accidental discoveries of historic-era human burials within legal and professional standards. Peter Petchey, Hallie Buckley, Rachel Scott ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/244 Sun, 12 Aug 2018 19:21:33 -0700 Obsidian from the Jacquinot Bay area, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea. https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/254 <p>The paper describes the analysis by portable XRF (pXRF) of 44 pieces of obsidian from six archaeological sites around Jacquinot Bay in the Pomio District of East New Britain, Papua New Guinea. One piece is possibly from a middle Lapita pottery context, but the remainder are undated but almost certainly post-Lapita in age. The pXRF analysis attributes all pieces to New Britain sources: 41 from Mopir and 3 from Willaumez Peninsula. The dominance of the Mopir source supports a relatively late date for the obsidian’s arrival in the Jacquinot Bay area. When considered in relation to a stemmed obsidian tool from Pakia village inland to the north of Jacquinot Bay, the results suggest that future work in this region area may feed into wider discussions on the control of resources and the social function of obsidian in the Papua New Guinea island provinces</p> Jim Specht, Jason Kariwiga, Anne Ford ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/254 Sun, 12 Aug 2018 19:19:01 -0700 Fishing strategies at an open-coast fishing site in east-Northland, New Zealand https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/266 <p>About 200 items collected at Archaeological Site Q04/44 at Paraenui Bay, just north of Bay of Islands, New Zealand, are associated with apparently late pre-Contact fishing. Although the collection methodology was not systematic, the assemblage offers novel insights into fishing strategies. The significant presence of small (≤25 mm, usually one-piece) fishhooks could mean leatherjackets <em>Meuschenia scaber</em>were a focus, their skin having been used as surrogate sandpaper in pre-Contact Northland. The presence of more than 30 large (almost certainly northern) spiny dogfish <em>Squalus griffini</em>spines point to fishing sorties into deep waters (100 m and beyond).</p> John Booth, C E Booth, W E Booth, R S Booth, H T Rihari ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/266 Sun, 12 Aug 2018 19:17:40 -0700 Excavations at Kahukura, Murihiku https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/246 <p>Archaeological data from coastal village sites are critical to our understanding of culture change in southern New Zealand. Here we report on excavations from Kahukura (G47/128), a sedentary coastal village occupied around the time of the cessation of moa-hunting. Results document an attempt to continue the sedentary village way of life in an environment of increasing isolation from long-distance exchange networks. Imported stone resources are scarce, and there is a trend away from terrestrial hunting and a specialisation in intensive local exploitation strategies. Excavations at Kahukura have resulted in a reinterpretation of the influential ‘transient village’ and ‘resource network’ models of culture change in southern New Zealand. We show that after the abandonment of transient villages, changes in settlement patterns, mobility and subsistence were not as abrupt as either model has suggested.</p> Richard Walter, Emma Brooks, Karen Greig, Jessie Hurford ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/246 Sun, 12 Aug 2018 00:00:00 -0700 Hiri: Archaeology of Long-Distance Maritime Trade Along the South Coast of Papua New Guinea - Skelly & David https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/239 Ben Shaw ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/239 Mon, 19 Feb 2018 01:33:42 -0800 LiDAR Imagery Confirms Extensive Interior Land-Use on Tutuila, American Sāmoa https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/250 <p>Analysis of LiDAR imagery for Tutuila, American Sāmoa, confirms extensive modification of the interior landscape.<br />Using both field-generated maps and feature descriptions as a guide, we identify numerous terraces and other probable<br />feature types in LiDAR images for three areas of Tutuila. Our results are applicable across the island.</p> Ethan E. Cochrane, Joseph Mills ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/250 Mon, 19 Feb 2018 01:33:42 -0800 The Field of War: LiDAR Identification of Earthwork Defences on Tongatapu Island, Kingdom of Tonga https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/231 <p class="paragraph">Warfare and conflict are associated with complex societies in in Polynesia where competition and coercion were common in island chiefdoms. In prehistoric Oceania, Tonga was unique for an Archaic state that under the Tu'i Tonga dynasty established control over an entire archipelago from A.D. 1200 to A.D. 1799 prior to a prolonged period of warfare. Lidar data was used to identify earthwork fortifications over the entirety of Tongatapu and to examine the conflict landscape using lidar-derived attributes in tandem with archaeological and historical information. The distribution of earthwork defences indicates a complex history of conflict and political machinations across Tongatapu beginning with the Tu’i Tonga chiefs at Lapaha, but resulting in a mid-19th century civil war ending with a new royal dynasty. Fortifications offer important evidence of social-political change, and the heritage condition of earthwork defences, many of which are under threat from development, was assessed with lidar. </p> Phillip Anthony Parton, Geoffrey Clark, Christian Reepmeyer, David Burley ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/231 Mon, 19 Feb 2018 01:33:41 -0800 Editorial https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/245 Ethan E Cochrane ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/245 Mon, 19 Feb 2018 01:33:41 -0800 Ancient DNA evidence for the introduction and dispersal of dogs in New Zealand https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/219 <p>When people first arrived in New Zealand around 700 years ago, they brought their dogs (<em>Canis familiaris</em>) with them. To investigate the introduction and dispersal of dogs across the country we generated twenty-three new complete, or nearly complete, mitogenomes from ancient DNA from dog teeth sampled from four early archaeological sites in New Zealand and from one archaeological site in the southern Cook Islands. When considered together with fourteen previously reported mitogenomes from the New Zealand colonisation era site of Wairau Bar these sequences reveal a striking lack of mitochondrial genetic diversity in early New Zealand dogs. Our analysis shows that a group of closely-related dogs were brought to New Zealand, probably from an East Polynesian source population, and that these dogs and their offspring were widely dispersed throughout the country during the colonisation process. This pattern is consistent with the current model of rapid colonisation of New Zealand undertaken by highly mobile groups of people.</p> Karen Greig, James Boocock, Melinda S. Allen, Richard Walter, Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/219 Mon, 19 Feb 2018 01:33:41 -0800 Coastal and Inland Settlement on Raiʻatea (Society Islands) During the Development/Expansion, Classic, and Post-Contact Phases https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/224 <p>The Society Islands hold a central place in archaeological models of Central Eastern Polynesia colonization and social complexity, given their spatial importance as a gateway into CEP from the west. Archaeological fieldwork in the Societies has had a patchy distribution, with most recent studies largely focusing on the Classic Phase in the Windward Island group, disallowing regional syntheses. Inland and coastal Raiʻatea, (Leeward Society Islands) were excavated and dated in order to develop a local chronology. Analysis of artifact and faunal assemblages, in conjunction with settlement patterns, contextualize the Raiatean cultural chronology within the regional archipelago-wide cultural sequence. Finally, a suite of lab-based analyses (micro-fossil analysis, wood charcoal identifications, land snail identification) are used to tentatively model human-landscape interactions through time. With this new corpus of 14C dates, we now have evidence for coastal Raiatean sites dating to the late Expansion and the late Classic to Early Post-Contact phase. Data from inland sites indicate complex the construction of a sizeable<strong> </strong>ritual center, including several community level temple structures with notable architectural elaboration, in the late Classic Period. This correlates well with regional archipelago-wide settlement pattern shifts during the Classic Phase.</p> Jennifer G. Kahn ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/224 Mon, 19 Feb 2018 01:33:41 -0800 New taxonomic records and regional trends for the Marquesan prehistoric marine fishery, Eiao Island, Polynesia https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/228 <p><strong></strong>Eiao Island (39.2 km<sup>2</sup>, 577 m elevation), situated at the northern extent of the Marquesas Archipelago, features rocky and steep coastlines with few sheltered embayments that allow easy access to the sea and marine resources. We report the first evidence of prehistoric fishing practices from Eiao Island based on three inland sites (possibly dating from the 14<sup>th</sup> to 17<sup>th</sup> centuries), and explore variation in fish exploitation (NISP = 1021; MNI = 157). All previous archaeological fishing records from the archipelago are from coastal sites, with inland Eiao Island assemblages offering comparative data on site location and taxonomic composition. The Eiao Island fish bone assemblages are dominated by piscivorous taxa, specifically grouper (Serranidae). Few tuna, mackerel and bonito (Scombridae) remains were recovered from the Eiao Island assemblages, compared to reports from Ua Pou, Tahuata and Ua Huka. New family-level taxonomic records added for the archipelago include: bonefish (Albulidae), requiem sharks (Carcharhinidae), butterflyfish (Chaetodontidae), flagtail (Kuhliidae), damselfish (Pomacentridae) and rabbitfish (Siganidae). These results further contribute to our understanding of prehistoric Marquesan fishing practices and allow elucidation of subsistence in coastal vs. inland settings, variability in taxonomic composition between islands of the archipelago, and importantly inform on human-environment interactions in East Polynesia.</p> Ariana Lambrides, Marshall Weisler, Michel Charleux ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/228 Mon, 19 Feb 2018 01:33:41 -0800 Archaeological Reconnaissance and the First Radiocarbon Dates From Simbo Island, Western Province, Solomon Islands https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/222 Recent archaeological fieldwork on the island of Simbo in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands has identified several new prehistoric sites. Here, we present the results of our research along with the first radiocarbon dates from Simbo. These dates and associated ceramic sherds provide a chronological and stylistic link to other islands with post-Lapita pottery and is an important step for understanding the human occupational history of the island, as well as filling a data gap in the Western Solomons. Hannah Haas, Todd J. Braje, Matthew Lauer, Scott M. Fitzpatrick, Lawrence Kiko, Grinta Ale'eke ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/222 Mon, 19 Feb 2018 01:33:41 -0800 The Cult of the Birdman: Religious Change at ‘Orongo, Rapa Nui (Easter Island) https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/198 <p>On the island of Rapa Nui the Cult of the Birdman reflected a very visible expression of political competition and cooperation at the island-wide level. This paper synthesizes recent archaeological and chronological information for the cult’s central site – ‘Orongo, in order to document the temporal shift in ideology from an emphasis on lineage autonomy to a more integrated leadership. While Rapa Nui was experiencing internal pressures from the loss of arable land and territory reconfiguration, brought on by soil nutrient depletion and limited rainfall, we hypothesize it was only the events associated with repeated European contact that were sufficiently disruptive to initiate rapid social change at the collective level. One social response was a realignment of ideological values represented by the formation of the Cult of the Birdman.  The first cult activities, in front of the stone houses at ‘Orongo, occurred during the early AD1600s.  Activities intensified near AD1800 possibly due to the negative impacts of European contact and it is hypothesized that stone house construction occurred at this time.</p> Taylor Robinson, Christopher M Stevenson ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/198 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 20:00:06 -0700 What is that bird? Pros and cons of the interpretations of Lapita pottery motifs. https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/199 <p>While Lapita pottery has fascinated researchers for more than half a century the interpretation of specific designs remains a difficult task that has only been rarely undertaken due to the speculative and contentious nature of such analysis. Here I attempt a tentative interpretation of a design that may help in the analysis of Lapita motifs. The example used is a relatively complex bird-shaped pattern, unidentified so far in the Lapita period, which it is argued may represent a number of specific species.</p><p class="western" style="font-weight: normal;" lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em><br /></em></span></span></p> Arnaud Noury ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/199 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 20:00:06 -0700 Māori Cordage from Te Wao Nui a Tiriwa, Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/208 <p>Tāmaki Paenga Hira (Auckland War Memorial Museum) holds a number of Māori archaeological textiles from cave and rockshelter sites in Aotearoa New Zealand. The textiles presented here are a cordage collection from Te Wao Nui a Tiriwa (Waitakere Ranges), Auckland. The cord fragments are manufactured with <em>whiri</em> (plaited) and <em>miro</em> (twisted) structures. The diversity of structural attributes reveals the use of a range of materials, strand forms and dimensions to manufacture cords. A range of local resources were used at all sites for plaited cords, however, the twisted cords are all made from the same plant species, <em>harakeke</em> (<em>Phormium tenax</em>, New Zealand Flax). The artefacts appear to be functional items such as lashing, binding and fishing lines. The exception is a plait made with human hair. In the main, the types of <em>whiri</em> and <em>miro</em> cords in the Te Wao Nui a Tiriwa collection are represented in other archaeological cordage assemblages in Aotearoa. This article provides comprehensive technical information which contributes to our understanding of Māori cordage technology and provides data important for future comparative textile studies.</p><p> </p> Lisa Mckendry ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/208 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 20:00:06 -0700 New Radiocarbon Ages Clarify Chronology of Waimea Plains Māori Settlement and Dry Agronomy, Northern Te Waipounamu https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/225 Ian G. Barber ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/225 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 20:00:06 -0700 Excavations on Motupore Island, Central District, Papua New Guinea - Allen, Swadling & Rye https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/233 Jim Rhodes ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/233 Wed, 06 Sep 2017 20:00:06 -0700