Journal of Pacific Archaeology <p>The <em>Journal of Pacific Archaeology</em> is an international peer-reviewed journal that publishes research on the archaeology of the islands and continental margins of the Pacific Ocean, both northern and southern hemispheres. There are two issues per year, appearing online in January and July with print editions appearing soon thereafter.</p> New Zealand Archaeological Association en-US Journal of Pacific Archaeology 1179-4704 Mapping prehistoric sailing routes to Lizard Island and beyond <p>Migration and exchange, as well as the circulation and diffusion of cultural, material and linguistic traits are dependent on the technical means, the environmental conditions and the human capacity to actually navigate and reach distant islands and coastal areas. Simulations of the navigational travel potential of Pacific Islanders have been undertaken in 1973 (Levison, Ward and Web) and 1992 (Irwin). However, these were lacking comprehensive wind data, were too approximate in methodological respects and did not calculate travel speed of vessels in relation to force and direction of winds. Based on new simulation software developed by one of the authors (Anne Di Piazza), to which mapping and geographical representation software was added by the other author (Laurent Dousset), this paper illustrates the potential for extensive human circulation to and from Lizard Island into the Solomon Sea in open sea voyages. The simulations show that the Coral and Solomon Seas were (or even must have been) places of dense but specific and interlinked navigational networks, and demonstrate that voyages from the Massim area and even from the Solomon Islands to the coast and islands of Queensland were not only possible, but were likely.</p> Laurent Dousset Anne Di Piazza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 Visual and geochemical characterisation of Late Cretaceous-Eocene cherts from eastern New Zealand: a preliminary study <p>Sedimentary chert from the eastern North Island and Marlborough region of the South Island, New Zealand (collectively referred to here as the Eastern Chert Province, ECP), was utilised by indigenous Maori communities from the 14<sup>th</sup> to 18<sup>th</sup> century. The chert is associated with Late Cretaceous-Paleocene siliceous shale of the Whangai Formation (<em>Whangai chert</em>) in the North Island, and the Late Cretaceous-Eocene Mead Hill Formation and overlying Amuri Limestone in Marlborough (<em>Kaikoura chert</em>). There is also an isolated occurrence at Tora, in south-eastern Wairarapa (<em>Tora chert</em>). Visual/petrographic attributes of these chert types are very similar, though some samples from Marlborough are calcareous and contain dolomite rhombs. Chemical analysis of 59 geological samples, by wavelength-dispersive XRF and portable XRF (pXRF), shows that the Whangai and Kaikoura cherts can be largely differentiated on the basis of Zr, Sr and Rb concentrations, but that the Tora chert is chemically indistinguishable from the Whangai chert. A separate group is recognised within the Kaikoura chert, characterised by higher Sr, Ca and Ba values, but there seems to be limited potential for the identification of specific sources within the ECP.</p> Phil Moore ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 New archaeological data from the abandoned island of Alofi (Hoorn archipelago, Western Polynesia) <p>The Hoorn Archipelago in Western Polynesia, comprising the islands of Futuna and Alofi, was in May 1616 the place of the very first long encounter between European navigators and Polynesians in the Central Pacific. The potential consequences of the two week stop of the Dutch sailors J. Lemaire and W. Schouten in Leava Bay have been a neglected topic of study until today. No proper consideration has been given to the possible introduction of foreign diseases during the close contacts and consequently to the hypothesis of a severe demographic impact well before the end of the 18th–19th centuries. In order to study the long-term demographic history of the archipelago, an archaeological research program was started on the island of Alofi. New archaeological surveys and spatial studies fulfilled in different parts of Alofi in 2019 have started to show the diversity and concentration of surface remains, testimony of a former dense settlement pattern. This paper highlights the main results of the first field season, allowing us to test the hypothesis of a massive depopulation on Alofi following first contact in 1616.</p> Christophe Sand Hemmamuthé Goudiaby Jesus Garcia Sanchez Ignacio Grau Mira Ipasio Masei Maria Cruz Berrocal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-22 2021-08-22 Pottery Production and Exchange in the Last Millennium in the Western Solomon Islands: a ceramic sequence for Choiseul <p>Introduced to the western Solomon Islands over two and a half millennia ago, pottery-making in the region has a long but patchily documented history. Previous research has focused predominantly on the earliest incised and applied relief ceramic wares associated with the arrival of Austronesian migratory groups in the Late to immediate Post-Lapita period (&lt;2800 calBP). Reported here are findings from stylistic and compositional analyses carried out on incised and impressed pottery recently recovered in the region which date to within the last millennium. Methods employed include a formal analysis and a combination of macroscopic fabric analysis and geochemical analysis using a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS). The results provide insight into the development of a poorly understood period of pottery production and exchange in the western Solomon Islands, and ultimately contribute towards reconstructing a more complete ceramic record for the region.</p> Charles James Tekarawa Radclyffe Glenn R Summerhayes James M Scott Richard Walter ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 25 46 Book Reviews <p>abstract</p> Joshua Emmitt ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 84 85 States without Archaeological Correlates? A Report from Hawaiʻi <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Two recent archaeological narratives of ancient Hawaiian society apply a neo-evolutionary approach to political development to argue that a primary state evolved prior to contact with Europeans in the late 18th century. Our analysis demonstrates that this finding is based on interpretations of indigenous oral traditions and contact-period historical accounts but lacks archaeological warrant. The Hawaiian archaeological record does not yield the conventional neo-evolutionary correlates of statehood. Moreover, archaeological evidence for the neo-evolutionary model of ladder-like transformation is also lacking.&nbsp; A chronological analysis of Hawaiian political development inferred from the archaeological record reveals that it was a seamless process, with no evidence of a disjuncture when a statehood event might have occurred. We advocate a historical approach to investigating political development in Hawai‘i that articulates directly with the archaeological record, and is sufficiently developed and general to be applicable elsewhere in the world.</p> James M Bayman Thomas S Dye Timothy M Rieth ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-07 2021-04-07 47 71 Refining the Chronology of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) Settlement <p>P. C. McCoy and colleagues carried out a comprehensive survey and test excavations at selected sites in the southwestern portion of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) in 1968. This included the excavation of a rectangular house (hare; 1-187) and a nearby stone-lined earth oven (umu pa‘e; 1-186) on the eastern rim of Rano Kau. A single radiocarbon date of AD 770 ± 230 from 1-187 was subsequently accepted by some researchers as support for the theory of early island settlement but contested by others. This paper presents results of the re-dating of these sites as part of a collaborative research program that also includes the complete digitization, auditing, and archiving of McCoy’s (1968) previously un-cataloged site survey records and analyses of selected artifacts and eco-facts collected during the 1968 survey. The newly acquired radiocarbon dates reported here provide insights into the longstanding debate regarding the timing of the initial settlement of Rapa Nui within a broader East Polynesian context and assist with the development of a refined model of island settlement, while speaking to the utility of conducting new analyses on archived samples in archaeological research.</p> Mara Mulrooney Jo Anne Van Tilburg Alice Hom Patrick C. McCoy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-10 2021-02-10 72 83 Revisiting warfare, monument destruction, and the ‘Huri Moai’ phase in Rapa Nui (Easter Island) culture history <p>Warfare is widely accepted as a transformative factor in human history. However, as warfare is not inevitable in human groups, archaeologists must critically assess the empirical evidence for war and its importance in the past. Here, we reevaluate the culture history of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), often interpreted as a case of warfare resulting in social upheaval. Common accounts hold that, prior to European contact, clan groups eventually ceased making moai statues and statue platforms (ahu), battled with obsidian spears, sought refuge in fortified caves, and toppled rivals’ moai in a prolonged period of internecine warfare termed the “Huri Moai” phase. Examining this culture historical framework and evidence for warfare and monument destruction, we find a lack of support in archaeological or historical records for a pre-contact Huri Moai phase. Overall, these findings highlight how archaeologists must carefully evaluate assumptions about the prevalence of violence and war in the past given the evidence for each case. In the case of Rapa Nui, our prior understanding of the island’s culture history is in need of fundamental revision.</p> Robert J. DiNapoli Carl P. Lipo Terry L. Hunt ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 1 24 ‘Death and his body-servant’: health, architecture and missionary endeavour at the Anelcauhat Mission House, Vanuatu <p>Remaining healthy was a major consideration for both indigenous and European peoples in the New Hebrides (now Vanuatu) during early contact. While local communities were often devastated by introduced disease, new missionaries sought practical ways to overcome the impact of tropical ailments that they considered to undermine the effectiveness of their activities. From the early 1850s onwards, Presbyterian missionaries in the southern New Hebrides began to construct ‘healthy’ homes, of which the surviving masonry mission house at Anelcauhat, Aneityum (1852-3) forms the earliest standing example. This paper draws on the results of both above- and in-ground archaeological recording to examine how the surviving structure reflects nineteenth-century ideas about illness and well-being before discussing the wider trajectory of such house construction, and associated matters connected with local communities, health and architecture that potentially impacted on missionary endeavour.</p> Martin Jones Adele Zubrzycka Stuart Bedford Matthew Spriggs Richard Shing ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 34 46 Hokikakika: History and Archaeology of a Catholic Village in the Eastern Tuamotus <p>On Fakahina atoll (eastern Tuamotus), the remains of Hokikakika village, abandoned in the early 20<sup>th</sup> century, reveal the history of the christianization of the region by catholic Fathers of the Sacred Hearts. The <em>mission</em> itself, at the intersection of the village’s two main roads, but also full-masonry houses, masonry substructures and secondary features (cisterns, wells, outdoor kitchens, bread oven) testify for the impact of the missionaries in the transformation of the daily lives of <em>pa’umotu</em> people. The aim of this paper is to precisely document Hokikakika’s history through missionary archives and oral testimonies, and confront it with the archaeological record, in order to gain a finer understanding of this crucial phase of Polynesian history.</p> Louis Lagarde Emilie Nolet Guillaume Molle ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-13 2020-09-13 74 89 The archaeology of missions and missionisation in Australasia and the Pacific <p>This collection, dedicated to Angela Middleton, comprises eight papers centred around missions and missionisation located across a vast region primarily composed of sea and islands. Case studies span mainland Australia, the Torres Strait and the far corners of the Pacific, including Vanuatu (the former New Hebrides), the Tuamotu Islands, Guam and New Zealand, the place where Angela’s career and influence began. The complexity and depth of Christian missionisation across Australasia and the Pacific is demonstrated by the time depth and variety of Christian denominations that are represented in these contributions. They include Spanish and French Catholics, in Guam and the Tuamotu archipelago respectively, the Protestant London Missionary Society in the Torres Strait, Wesleyans in western Australia and New Zealand, and Presbyterians in Vanuatu.</p> Stuart Bedford James L Flexner Martin Jones ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 7 10 A Typology of Erasure <p>Agents of the London Missionary Society sought radical change in the worlds of Torres Strait Islanders and communities in southern central New Guinea. As they had elsewhere in Oceania, LMS agents buried, burned or collected powerful objects, destroyed cultural sites and introduced new cosmic beings. Clearly, the act of erasure was violent and destabilising. But the act was also generative of new expressive spiritscape and cosmic dialogues. In this sense, missionary interventions held unintended consequences. This paper examines mission texts, ethnographies and oral histories to chart missionary interventions in Torres Strait and adjacent areas in southern central New Guinea. I do so in an attempt to clarify the grammar and form of these early mission encounters to (1) understand the effect of material interventions in Torres Strait Islander seascapes, (2) consider Islander agency in the evangelical encounter, and (3) draw attention to the materiality of this process.</p> Jeremy Edwin Ash ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-03 2020-09-03 90 100 Erased Places? Revealing the Mission network of the Swan River Colony, 1829-1879. <p>This paper reviews the institutions established for First Nations (Nyungar) children and young adults (16 missions and other residential institutions) operating in the first 50 years of the Swan River Colony, Western Australia (1829 – 1879), and their potential as sites of archaeological investigation. Focusing upon two institutions operating within this network, at Perth, run by the colonial government and Wesleyan Methodists between 1833 and 1844, it asks to what extent these missions operated as part of a network of surveillance and control of Nyungar lives. Evidence for the archaeology and the history of these places is examined and specifically their varying spatial characteristics, that were exploited by administrators in attempts to colonise and control Nyungar inmates. The role of such missions in the landscape of frontier colonialism and the colonial society and economy is explored.</p> Janet Osborne ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-03 2020-09-03 101 114 The First Missions in Oceania <p>This essay outlines and explores the broader implications of preliminary archaeological excavations at the colonial church and cemetery of San Dionisio (Humåtak, Guam, Mariana Islands).&nbsp; The native Chamorro of the Marianas were the first Pacific Islanders to experience European colonialism following the inception of the Jesuit mission in 1668. Although the Marianas were once perceived as a peripheral outpost of Spanish colonialism in the 17th century, recent scholarship reveals that such locales epitomize the underlying logic of the Jesuit mission system. Moreover, it is increasingly clear that in spite of centuries of colonialism, Guam offers a striking example of indigenous resilience and the vitality of archaeological heritage in the maintenance of contemporary cultural identity.</p> Sandra Montón-Subías Natalia Moragas James Morrison Bayman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-10 2020-08-10 62 73 Bringing Christ to Whaingaroa <p>Te Nihinihi Mission Station was the second of the Wesleyan mission stations at Whaingaroa (Raglan) replacing the earlier station on the north side of the harbour with a dedicated and distinct mission station on the southern side of the harbour in 1839 which operated until 1881. The mission was the third in a chain of missions established by the Wesleyan Mission Society along the west coast of the North Island and in the interior of the Waikato. The Wallises at Te Nihinihi mission were active and popular with Māori, but during their time the environment changed from one dominated by Māori to one colonised with land purchases by Europeans. Shortly after the Wallises left, land confiscation followed the militarisation of the area during the British invasion of the Waikato. The history of the Whaingaroa Mission is, like most of the other west coast Wesleyan missions, only sketchily understood with no archaeological investigations undertaken prior to the work described here. The mission layout itself describes the integrated yet separated nature of Whaingaroa mission and hints at the changing status and relationship of the mission within the colonising process of Whaingaroa/Raglan Harbour.</p> Warren Gumbley Lyn Williams Matthew Gainsford ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-06 2020-08-06 47 61 Gendering the archaeology of the mission frontier in the New Hebrides <p>The New Hebrides (now Vanuatu) was the location of a series of sometimes dramatic encounters with Presbyterian missionaries from the 1840s through the early 20<sup>th</sup> century. Survey and excavations of mission landscapes revealed the ways that missionaries sought to carve out a ‘civilised’ space in the ‘savage’ Melanesian islands where they settled. Mission encounters were also heavily gendered, both in the domestic relationships between missionary husbands, wives, and children, and in the relationships missionaries formed with local Islanders. Evidence from nine years of archaeological research on mission landscapes and material culture from southern Vanuatu is used to explore the implications of gender for understanding these colonial encounters.</p> James Flexner ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 11 20 Encounters with stone: Missionary battles with idols in the southern New Hebrides <p>A fundamental goal of Christian missionaries in the Pacific was to depose indigenous deities and substitute them with Christian beliefs. Hence, they were constantly battling indigenous idolatry and idols. The islands of the southern New Hebrides were the first locations in Melanesia where missionisation was attempted with strategies and philosophy heavily influenced by the practices of the London Missionary Society in Polynesia. On the island of Aneityum idols were primarily unmodified stones which were regularly offered to the church in a sign of conversion and which in some cases were incorporated into church buildings. Guided by oral traditions, a cache of such stones was excavated at the mission station at Anelcauhat, southern Aneityum. They highlight the ongoing negotiation between kastom and Christianity in Vanuatu that began more than 150 years ago.</p> Stuart Bedford Dijana Haskell-Crook Matthew Spriggs Richard Shing ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 21 33 The bright archaeological light that was Angela Middleton Stuart Bedford James Flexner Martin Jones Jessie Garland Harry Allen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-04 2020-08-04 1 6 Middens historically significant on a Northland landscape are key to demonstrating ecological degradation in an adjacent estuary <p>Cockles (<em>Austrovenus stutchburyi</em>) dominate Māori middens near Hororoa Point, in mid-Kerikeri Inlet, Bay of Islands, New Zealand, essentially all being 27–55-mm long, disarticulated individuals. Historical records show that significant cockle harvesting was taking place nearby in at least the early-1800s, yet, despite little or no harvesting now for decades, dense cockle beds in this area today contain low proportions &gt;30 mm long, and few individuals exceed 35 mm. The middens provide critical insight into the degraded nature of this cockle population today compared with late-historical times, a situation that appears to prevail around much of the Bay of Islands.</p> John Booth Bill G. Edwards ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-22 2020-07-22 115 123 Functional Classification of Hawaiian Curved-Edge Adzes and Gouges <p class="first-paragraph-western" style="line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-family: TeXGyreTermes, serif;">As part of a project to describe and classify functionally more than 800 Hawaiian stone adzes held in the ethnographic and archaeological collections at Bishop Museum in Honolulu, 24 tools with curved edges were identified and described. The curved-edge tools include adzes and gouges, which can be unambiguously distinguished from one another using a combination of weight and length index. Many of the curved-edge adzes have large cutting edge width ratios; the narrow shoulders and wide edges led archaeologists to describe them as “hoofed”. Curved-edge adzes and gouges make up less than the 3 percent of the Hawaiian collection. Their rarity in Hawai‘i appears to be in line with other island groups in East Polynesia outside New Zealand, where they make up about 10 percent of museum collections.</span></p> Thomas Dye Jennifer G. Kahn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-13 2020-07-13 124 132 Book Reviews Multiple Reviewers ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-20 2020-05-20 83 85 A Locational Analysis of Rock Art in the North Island, Aotearoa New Zealand <p>Māori rock art is widely distributed across Aotearoa New Zealand. It has been extensively studied in the South Island where a strong correlation between rock art and limestone outcrops in the South Island has been identified. However, few studies have investigated the distribution and preservation of petroglyphs and pictographs in the North Island. Previous studies suggest preliminary correlations between the distribution of North Island rock art and the availability of suitable rock surfaces. As they are based on broad regional observations of the distribution of sites and geological formations, the observations of correlations of art with rock type are limited. Here we adopt a landscape approach to quantitatively test previous correlations. A bias in the placement of rock art on ignimbrite rock formations is shown. This preliminary analysis provides a foundation for more detailed regional studies to understand if the correlation reflects a deliberate selection of certain geological rock surfaces by North Island Māori, and how differential weathering and preservation processes may contribute to the present-day spatial distribution of rock art.</p> Patricia Pillay Gerard O'Regan Joshua Emmitt ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-20 2020-05-20 71 82 Community Relationships and Integration at a Small-Island Scale <p>Most pre-European polities in Polynesia were constituted by multiple interacting communities, some of which were centers while others were hinterlands. The relationship between these communities was mediated by the nature of power in these societies and the economic and ideological foundations of that power. Different relationships leave different material traces across landscapes. The identification of analytical communities in the archaeological record and the analysis of material variation between communities aids in elucidating different forms of group consolidation and hierarchical organization within the region. Using a case study from the Manu‘a Group, Sāmoa, I compare and contrast a series of analytical communities to identify points of variation. These points of variation are then used to highlight the organization of settlement in these societies and the nature of power that supported that organization. I demonstrate that different fields of power can be identified in Polynesia by comparing the archaeological record of communities, and such comparison provides insights into the dynamics of political structure not wholly documented in ethnographic and ethnohistorical literature.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Seth Quintus ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-20 2020-05-20 61 70 Hinterlands, Heartlands and History: dynamic landscapes in New Zealand archaeology <p>Core-periphery models have been widely used in archaeology. The core implies centrality and richness; the periphery encompasses ideas of distance, disconnection, marginality, and challenge. The approach is most useful in urban studies but less appropriate in societies with less well defined social and economic hierarchies, and few technological or economic dissimilarities such as pre-contact Aotearoa. In this study we explore the usefulness of the concept of hinterland to understand Aotearoa history and show how trajectories of change occurred across the entire social landscape. High mobility, low population density and extreme environmental and climatic diversity shaped circumstances where heartland-hinterland dichotomies were fluid and easily subverted. Working at different scales, we show how places transitioned across the heartland-hinterland continuum in response to socio-cultural, historical, economic and environmental processes. In New Zealand heartland-hinterland relationships were temporally dynamic and contingent rather than emerging from fixed principles of geographic resource distribution and accessibility. This is usefully modelled as raindrops on a pond.</p> Karen Greig Richard Walter ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-20 2020-05-20 53 60 The Māʻohi Hinterlands <p>I draw upon current research highlighting the agentive role that hinterland zones could have on both local and regional dynamics. In my case study on the Society Islands, I consider hinterland variability at multiple scales, that of the local, community, and regional or meta-regional scale. Synthesis of historic texts and oral traditions provide an emic view into how the Maʻohi themselves conceptualized their social landscapes. I develop a multi-scalar view of hinterlands and hinterland to core relations, exploring island specific, archipelago-specific, and extra-archipelago “far” hinterlands in the Society Island context. Finally, I use both ethnohistoric and archaeological data to imagine both push and pull factors leading to certain social actors inhabiting specific hinterland regions. My multi-scalar view of Māʻohi hinterlands illuminates their diverse socio-economic roles as well as their relational quality. As I argue, elites reached deep into the hinterlands as a form of political aggrandizement and as an expression of economic power. Such places also served as elite refugia for Māʻohi chiefs, priests, and ‘<em>arioi</em>. Yet agency was not restricted to core regions, as hinterland communities likewise reached deep into these zones in order to maintain their own economic viability through precious socio-political alliances and networks.</p> Jennifer G. Kahn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-20 2020-05-20 41 52 On the Margins of the Market <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>While hinterlands have often been viewed as the areas that surround urban centers or central zones, some researchers have used the term to describe areas on the edges or margins of an integrated periphery. In Hawaiʻi, the market economy spread across large swaths of the archipelago during the nineteenth century. This paper considers the spread of the market economy through Hawaiʻi from the perspective of a community in one of Hawaiʻi’s marginal regions. Here, I examine artifacts and subsistence evidence from nineteenth-century Hawaiian house sites at Miloliʻi, a community on the remote Nā Pali Coast of Kauaʻi Island. Analysis of the household assemblages suggests that the residents of the Nā Pali Coast gradually began to incorporate foreign consumer goods into household economies. Rather than serving as hallmarks for large-scale changes in the household economy, foreign goods were instead incorporated into households that continued to rely on household-level food production and manufacture household goods from locally available materials. Rather than committing themselves to wholesale participation in the market economy, this paper argues that Nā Pali Coast households were able to strategically fashion for themselves a place on the margins of the market economy.</p> Summer Moore ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-20 2020-05-20 27 40 Hinterlands and mobile courts of the Hawai`i Island state <p>The eighteenth century Hawai`i Island state included more than 400 local communities divided among six districts, each with a resident elite. The king’s mobile court of as many as a thousand people frequently moved from one highly productive district core to another. The “capital” was wherever the king resided. Broadly speaking, hinterlands were where the court was not. Hinterland residents included both commoners who provided nearly all the kingdom’s labour and government officials with whom they negotiated the payment of tax in kind. Commoners also negotiated double title to their lands in the form of both inheritance from parents and grants by resident officials.</p> Robert Hommon ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-20 2020-05-20 21 26 Collective action and political agency in the leeward Kohala hinterlands, Hawai‘i Island <p>The <em>kuaʻ‘āina</em>, or backcountry, in the Hawaiian Islands was the setting for a dynamic back-and-forth between the collective action of commoner class farmers and political elites. We examine how the long-term history of that dynamic left behind spatial patterns in the form and distribution of domestic, agricultural, and ritual architecture across the Leeward Kohala Field System. We find a contrast between places that were the best and most reliable for farming and lands prone to shortfalls. Less ideal lands were less densely populated with fewer efforts to standardize plot sizes and a lower investment in temple architecture. We suggest that as leeward Kohala was drawn more and more into competition for power that involved local and non-local chiefs, the autonomy of residents diminished, and the ability of local inhabitants to negotiate the demands of elites after this shift was variable, with greater demands likely placed on residents living in optimal zones.</p> Thegn Ladefoged Mark D McCoy Michael W Graves ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-20 2020-05-20 10 20 Rethinking Hinterlands in Polynesia <p>Hinterland studies demonstrate the capacity to highlight nuance in regional and temporal variation in the Polynesian past. This Special Issue highlights a group of papers which focus on recent topics and themes drawn from case studies situated in different parts of the Polynesian region. In this article, we summarize the history of hinterland studies, introduce the articles and themes from the Special Issue, and, finally, consider the future of hinterland studies, providing thoughts on a compelling but under-studied avenue of inquiry.</p> Nick Belluzzo Summer Moore Jennifer Kahn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-20 2020-05-20 1 9 LiDAR in New Zealand Archaeology: prospects and pitfalls <p>Airborne LiDAR has become a valuable tool for archaeologists and heritage professionals around the globe. The use of the technology has been relatively limited in New Zealand; however, the growing availability of data means this is beginning to change. In this paper we explore the prospects and limitations of LiDAR in two prosaic but core areas of archaeology: the detection of sites at the landscape scale and characterisation of features at the site-scale. In both cases we find LiDAR to be a generally effective tool. Larger sites (e.g. fortified pā sites) were nearly always located and could easily be mapped, whilst other like storage pits were identified at much lower rates depending on the intersection of factors like topography and land cover and were difficult to map. The general results of our analysis are intuitive, nevertheless they provide a useful case study for the capability of LiDAR for carrying out these key tasks and the situations in which greater confidence may be placed on LiDAR determinations. Ultimately, we suggest the integration of LiDAR with traditional field survey is a means to greatly enhance the understanding of archaeological sites in New Zealand.</p> Josephine May Hagan Andrew A Brown ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-04 2019-12-04 80 91